Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that disrupts the body’s normal glucose and insulin balance. It is generally associated with unhealthy lifestyles and extra body weight, but genetic variations can also increase your risk, regardless of your lifestyle.
Glucose is the primary source of energy used by the cells in our bodies. The levels of this simple sugar are regulated by the hormone insulin, produced by the beta cells of the pancreas. People with type 2 diabetes do not make sufficient amounts of insulin, therefore have consistently high blood sugar levels.
With a simple mouth swab you can find out whether you have inherited DNA changes that increase your risk of type 2 diabetes.
Genetic variations can affect our glucose and insulin levels, sensitivity to dietary fatty acids, and the way our body responds to insulin, resulting in increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Knowledge of genetic variants that increase your risk of type 2 diabetes allows you to make lifestyle changes today, to reduce your risk of this debilitating condition.
|ACC2||Reduced response to insulin|
|ADCY5||Inhibited secretion of insulin|
|FABP2, FTO||Increased uptake of saturated fats|
|ADIPOQ, CRY2, FADS1, G6PC2, GLUT2, MTNR1B, PROX1, TCF7L2||Increased fasting glucose levels|
|GCKR||Reduced fasting glucose levels|
|GCK, HNF4A||Reduced pancreatic beta cell function|
|GLIS3, IRS1, SLC30A8||Disrupted insulin production/signalling/storage|
|SHBG||Increased sex hormone binding globulin|
|MADD||Impaired proinsulin-to-insulin conversion|
|SOD2||Increased reactive oxygen species|
|HIF1A||Resistance to hypoxia|
How many diabetes risk factors do you have?
Family history of type 2 diabetes
Obesity and fat accumulation (around the abdomen)
Lack of physical exercise
Ethnicity (Africans and American Indians have a higher risk)
Prediabetes – elevated blood sugar
Polycystic ovarian syndrome